Shadow Education in China: Policies, Problems and Suggestions
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Hujing Hu, Fengqiao Liu
Extra-curricular private tutoring is also known as shadow education academically. This paper reviews policies of shadow education in China since the launch of its reform and opening-up policy, which has undergone the evolution from rise to development, then from over-marketization to standardized regulation, and analyses the current development status and existing problems of shadow education in China. Future suggestions in the long-term are proposed to shadow education development problems.
Shadow Education; Extra-curricular Private Training; Policies; Suggestions